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3 Simple Ways To Add Speed And Endurance

Learn the benefits of developing VO2 Max, Lactate Threshold and Running Economy.

Learn the benefits of developing VO2 Max, Lactate Threshold and Running Economy.

Over the past several years, athletes have continued to defy the odds and break performance barriers once believed to be impossible. Five years ago at the Beijing Olympics, for example, U.S. swimmer Michael Phelps amazed us all by earning eight gold medals. Distance runner Haile Gebreselassie dipped under 2:04 and broke his own world record at the Berlin Marathon that same year, while triathlete Chrissie Wellington repeated as Ironman World Champion, winning by 15 minutes despite a flat on the bike leg.

Many wonder what factors contribute to these athletes’ performance peaks. Genetics no doubt plays a role, yet research suggests that genes contribute no more than half of an athlete’s VO2 max (maximal rate of oxygen consumption), which is one key predictor of performance capacity. Both training and nutrition manipulation also help to not only boost an athlete’s VO2 max, but also the lactate threshold and sport economy, two additional pieces to the performance puzzle. This article looks at the training and nutrition techniques that have been proven to enhance these three elements, thereby helping to maximize performance potential.

VO2 Max

Essential For: Athletes in 5K/10K running events

Your VO2 max measures the maximum amount of oxygen that can be consumed per minute while training. The highest VO2 max ever recorded was by cross-country skier Bjorn Daehilie: at 94 ml/kg/dl, which towers over the average athlete’s VO2 max by 30-40 percent. The good news is that by increasing training volume and intensity, research suggests that an athlete, depending on baseline fitness level, can boost his VO2 max by as much as 40 percent. And a 10 percent increase in VO2 max can shave more than a minute off a 5K run time!

Increased training volume is the most common way to improve your VO2 max, but it is important to understand there are diminishing returns at a certain volume: 60-90 run miles/week or 10-12 hours for most athletes. A more efficient way to improve VO2 max, according to French exercise physiologist Veronique Billat, is to do intervals at a speed that elicits your VO2 max — or the fastest effort you can maintain — for about eight minutes (up to 90 percent of your maximum heart rate).

RELATED: VO2 Max Workouts

Nutrition Tip: Blood sugars tend to decrease while levels of common inflammation markers increase after finishing high-intensity efforts, making nutrition important for optimal recovery. Try blending the following recovery-focused ingredients after your next workout: tart cherry juice, low-fat vanilla yogurt and a frozen banana.

Lactate Threshold

Essential For: Athletes in half marathons

Your lactate, or anaerobic threshold (LT) pace is defined as the fastest pace you can sustain for an extended period (20+ minutes) before lactate, a by-product of the fuel burned during hard exercise, starts building up in your blood causing muscle fatigue. Your LT pace will evolve (get faster) with proper training. Recreational athletes typically hit their LT at about 65 to 80 percent of their VO2 max, whereas elite and world-class endurance athletes tend to peak at 85-95 percent. This is what allows elite athletes to hold such a strong pace for longer distances.

RELATED: How Do I Find My Lactate Threshold?

Check out this website to estimate your LT pace.

Nutrition Tip: A diet rich in healthy carbohydrates (potatoes, whole grains, fruits, vegetables) is essential for enhancing muscle glycogen stores during LT training.

Sport Economy

Essential For: All athletes, but especially marathoners

Running economy measures the amount of oxygen you need to train, at any pace. Biomechanics play a huge role in running economy so enlisting the help of a professional to evaluate your running gait is often very helpful in enhancing sport economy — along with VO2 max and LT workouts. A third workout that helps improve an athlete’s running economy involves longer efforts, generally 25-50 percent longer in length than LT and VO2 max workouts, yet completed at a more aerobic conversational pace. These longer efforts should be completed once a week.

RELATED: 5 Common Running Form Mistakes

Nutrition Tip: Losing excess body fat will help yield dramatic improvements in sport economy, as leaner athletes simply require less oxygen to reach that finish line. To aid weight loss in a healthy manner, cut 250-500 calories from your daily nutrition intake or add 25-45 minutes to your regular energy expenditure.


About The Author:

Kim Mueller, MS, RD, owner of Fuel Factor Nutrition, is a registered dietitian and exercise physiologist who provides customized menu planning, nutrition coaching and race-specific nutrition programs to athletes worldwide. You can contact her at .